Arthur Whiteside, ADL Managing Director
UK Sales; and Frank Thorpe, BYD’s Country
Manager gave the points of view from
all three businesses involved in the
partnership, reflecting on the engineering
issues encountered during the design and
implementation stages, and how they were
Richard provided an honest and frank
account of the operator’s journey to an allelectric
fleet at its Waterloo garage.
A learning curve
Challenges faced included language
barriers with Shenzhen-based BYD and
the first prototype delivered in August
2013 was the wrong size and had various
“We have a refurbishment centre
in Hampshire, so we had it down there
for a couple of months,” says Richard.
“It wasn’t a huge amount of work, but
we had to get certain bits and pieces right
and we got it into service in December
The fact that there was no other similar
model to replicate was another issue, says
“We had to put a bid in for an electric bus
route, but there is no guidebook on how
to do this. When you’ve got to transform
a whole depot with 50 buses, that really
gives you a lot to think about,” he says.
Not everyone has the luxury of purchasing
new vehicles to meet Euro 6 standards,
so retrofitting older vehicles is an option.
Amminex Emissions Technology’s Product
Manager, Lars Tinggaard Johannsen,
explained how Amminex has been involved
with retrofitting the Metroline bus fleet
with an emissions aftertreatment system.
“Our approach is slightly different from
the mainstream retrofit, in that we’re not
using AdBlue. We’re using a different
technology where we have gaseous
ammonia being released directly into the
system,” says Lars.
This is called Ammonia Storage and
Delivery System (ASDS) and London
operator Metroline has seen two
advantages. Firstly, ASDS is able to remove
NOx from the diesel exhaust in typical city
driving conditions, and, secondly, vehicle
uptime has improved, avoiding expensive
repairs and maintenance costs on AdBluebased
A further case study of successful
retrofitting was presented by Andy Brooks,
Business Development Manager at Milbrook
and its Principal Engineer Richard Hudson.
Andy and Richard explained the process
of Millbrook’s first bus conversion in the
Cummins RePower programme, swapping
a new engine and aftertreatment system
into an older bus.
A 2009-built ADL E400 Euro 5 doubledeck
received the latest Cummins B6.7 Euro
6 system, which also incorporated a new
stop-start ZF transmission, new cooling
pack and replacement electric ancillaries
such as fans and power steering.
Says Andy: “If we look at some of the
studies that have been done from Euro
5 to Euro 6, it’s created a 95% reduction
in NOx, extending the life of these vehicles
by possibly up to eight years.
“We believe up to an 8% fuel saving
is achievable over the previous Euro
5 by deploying the stop-start technology
and electrification. Another advantage
is this powertrain is also compatible with
biodiesel and renewable diesel.”
The conference also provided
// External pressures...
will continue to have an
effect on CAZs and will
eventually lead to zeroemission
zones in the
not-too-distant future //
ambition’ in 2050 for all UK sales to be
“Those two pledges play a key part
in the road to zero strategy,” says Francis.
One operator all too familiar with the
importance and requirements of moving
towards a zero-emission fleet is Go-Ahead
A collaboration between the bus
operator, Alexander Dennis Limited (ADL)
and BYD led to one of the first fleets of fullelectric
buses outside of China.
A session comprising Richard Harrington,
Go-Ahead London Engineering Director;
36 / ROUTE-ONE.NET 3 OCTOBER 2018